Human Gene Module / Chromosome 17 / DLX3

DLX3distal-less homeobox 3

Score
2
Strong Candidate Criteria 2.1
Autism Reports / Total Reports
1 / 2
Rare Variants / Common Variants
2 / 0
Aliases
DLX3, AI4,  TDO
Associated Syndromes
-
Genetic Category
Rare Single Gene Mutation
Chromosome Band
17q21.33
Associated Disorders
-
Relevance to Autism

De novo missense variants in the DLX3 gene have been identified in two ASD probands (Iossifov et al., 2014). An integrated meta-analysis of de novo mutation data from a combined dataset of 10,927 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders identified DLX3 as a gene with an excess of missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1); DLX3 was similarly identified as a gene with an excess of de novo missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1) following analysis of 5,624 cases with a primary diagnosis of ASD (Coe et al., 2018).

Molecular Function

Likely to play a regulatory role in the development of the ventral forebrain and may play a role in craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis. Trichodentoosseous syndrome (TDO), an autosomal dominant condition, has been correlated with DLX3 gene mutation.

Reports related to DLX3 (2 Reports)
# Type Title Author, Year Autism Report Associated Disorders
1 Primary The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder Iossifov I et al. (2014) Yes -
2 Recent Recommendation Neurodevelopmental disease genes implicated by de novo mutation and copy number variation morbidity. Coe BP , et al. (2018) No -
Rare Variants   (2)
Status Allele Change Residue Change Variant Type Inheritance Pattern Parental Transmission Family Type PubMed ID Author, Year
c.157G>A p.Gly53Ser missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 25363768 Iossifov I et al. (2014)
c.626C>T p.Ser209Leu missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 25363768 Iossifov I et al. (2014)
Common Variants  

No common variants reported.

SFARI Gene score
2

Strong Candidate

De novo missense variants in the DLX3 gene have been identified in two ASD probands (Iossifov et al., 2014). An integrated meta-analysis of de novo mutation data from a combined dataset of 10,927 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders identified DLX3 as a gene with an excess of missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1); DLX3 was similarly identified as a gene with an excess of de novo missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1) following analysis of 5,624 cases with a primary diagnosis of ASD (Coe et al., 2018).

Score Delta: Score remained at 3

2

Strong Candidate

See all Category 2 Genes

We considered a rigorous statistical comparison between cases and controls, yielding genome-wide statistical significance, with independent replication, to be the strongest possible evidence for a gene. These criteria were relaxed slightly for category 2.

10/1/2019
3
icon
2

Decreased from 3 to 2

New Scoring Scheme
Description

De novo missense variants in the DLX3 gene have been identified in two ASD probands (Iossifov et al., 2014). An integrated meta-analysis of de novo mutation data from a combined dataset of 10,927 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders identified DLX3 as a gene with an excess of missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1); DLX3 was similarly identified as a gene with an excess of de novo missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1) following analysis of 5,624 cases with a primary diagnosis of ASD (Coe et al., 2018).

Reports Added
[New Scoring Scheme]
1/1/2019
icon
3

Increased from to 3

Description

De novo missense variants in the DLX3 gene have been identified in two ASD probands (Iossifov et al., 2014). An integrated meta-analysis of de novo mutation data from a combined dataset of 10,927 individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders identified DLX3 as a gene with an excess of missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1); DLX3 was similarly identified as a gene with an excess of de novo missense variants (false discovery rata < 5%, count >1) following analysis of 5,624 cases with a primary diagnosis of ASD (Coe et al., 2018).

Krishnan Probability Score

Score 0.48625766255928

Ranking 7210/25841 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
Krishnan and colleagues generated probability scores genome-wide by using a machine learning approach on a human brain-specific gene network. The method was first presented in Nat Neurosci 19, 1454-1462 (2016), and scores for more than 25,000 RefSeq genes can be accessed in column G of supplementary table 3 (see: http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v19/n11/extref/nn.4353-S5.xlsx). A searchable browser, with the ability to view networks of associated ASD risk genes, can be found at asd.princeton.edu.
ExAC Score

Score 0.011365347117331

Ranking 9899/18225 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) is a summary database of 60,706 exomes that has been widely used to estimate 'constraint' on mutation for individual genes. It was introduced by Lek et al. Nature 536, 285-291 (2016), and the ExAC browser can be found at exac.broadinstitute.org. The pLI score was developed as measure of intolerance to loss-of- function mutation. A pLI > 0.9 is generally viewed as highly constrained, and thus any loss-of- function mutations in autism in such a gene would be more likely to confer risk. For a full list of pLI scores see: ftp://ftp.broadinstitute.org/pub/ExAC_release/release0.3.1/functional_gene_constraint/fordist_cle aned_exac_nonTCGA_z_pli_rec_null_data.txt
Sanders TADA Score

Score 0.93663180668948

Ranking 13259/18665 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
The TADA score ('Transmission and De novo Association') was introduced by He et al. PLoS Genet 9(8):e1003671 (2013), and is a statistic that integrates evidence from both de novo and transmitted mutations. It forms the basis for the claim of 65 individual genes being strongly associated with autism risk at a false discovery rate of 0.1 (Sanders et al. Neuron 87, 1215-1233 (2015)). The calculated TADA score for 18,665 RefSeq genes can be found in column P of Supplementary Table 6 in the Sanders et al. paper (the column headed 'tadaFdrAscSscExomeSscAgpSmallDel'), which represents a combined analysis of exome data and small de novo deletions (see www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2038545319/2052606711/mmc7.xlsx).
Zhang D Score

Score -0.14205803210193

Ranking 13886/20870 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
The DAMAGES score (disease-associated mutation analysis using gene expression signatures), or D score, was developed to combine evidence from de novo loss-of- function mutation with evidence from cell-type- specific gene expression in the mouse brain (specifically translational profiles of 24 specific mouse CNS cell types isolated from 6 different brain regions). Genes with positive D scores are more likely to be associated with autism risk, with higher-confidence genes having higher D scores. This statistic was first presented by Zhang & Shen (Hum Mutat 38, 204- 215 (2017), and D scores for more than 20,000 RefSeq genes can be found in column M in supplementary table 2 from that paper.
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SFARI Gene Update

We are pleased to announce some changes to the ongoing curation of the data in SFARI Gene. In the context of a continued effort to develop the human gene module and its manually curated list of autism risk genes, we are modifying other aspects of the site to focus on the information that is of greatest interest to the research community. The version of SFARI Gene that has been developed until now will be frozen and will remain available as “SFARI Gene Archive”. Please see the announcement for more details.
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