Human Gene Module / Chromosome 9 / STXBP1

STXBP1Syntaxin binding protein 1

Score
1S
High Confidence, Syndromic Criteria 1.1, Syndromic
Autism Reports / Total Reports
13 / 49
Rare Variants / Common Variants
165 / 0
Aliases
STXBP1, RP11-56D16.3,  MUNC18-1,  NSEC1,  P67,  RBSEC1,  UNC18
Associated Syndromes
Atypical Rett syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, Rett syndrome
Genetic Category
Rare Single Gene Mutation, Syndromic, Functional
Chromosome Band
9q34.11
Associated Disorders
DD/NDD, ADHD, EPS, ASD, ID, EP
Relevance to Autism

A 67 kb monogenic deletion affecting exons 1-4 of the STXBP1 gene was identified in a female patient with ASD, severe ID, and neonatal seizures (Campbell et al., 2012).

Molecular Function

This gene encodes a syntaxin-binding protein. The encoded protein appears to play a role in release of neurotransmitters via regulation of syntaxin, a transmembrane attachment protein receptor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with infantile epileptic encephalopathy-4.

Reports related to STXBP1 (49 Reports)
# Type Title Author, Year Autism Report Associated Disorders
1 Highly Cited De novo mutations in the gene encoding STXBP1 (MUNC18-1) cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy Saitsu H , et al. (2008) No ID
2 Support De novo STXBP1 mutations in mental retardation and nonsyndromic epilepsy Hamdan FF , et al. (2009) No Epilepsy
3 Support Clinical spectrum of early-onset epileptic encephalopathies associated with STXBP1 mutations Deprez L , et al. (2010) No ID
4 Support STXBP1 mutations in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst pattern Saitsu H , et al. (2010) No -
5 Support Paternal mosaicism of an STXBP1 mutation in OS Saitsu H , et al. (2010) No -
6 Support STXBP1 mutations cause not only Ohtahara syndrome but also West syndrome--result of Japanese cohort study Otsuka M , et al. (2011) No -
7 Support Intellectual disability without epilepsy associated with STXBP1 disruption Hamdan FF , et al. (2011) No -
8 Support Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders Neale BM , et al. (2012) Yes -
9 Primary Novel 9q34.11 gene deletions encompassing combinations of four Mendelian disease genes: STXBP1, SPTAN1, ENG, and TOR1A Campbell IM , et al. (2012) Yes -
10 Support Range of genetic mutations associated with severe non-syndromic sporadic intellectual disability: an exome sequencing study Rauch A , et al. (2012) No Epilepsy, ASD
11 Support Targeted resequencing in epileptic encephalopathies identifies de novo mutations in CHD2 and SYNGAP1 Carvill GL , et al. (2013) No ID, ASD, DD
12 Positive Association De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies Epi4K Consortium , et al. (2013) No IS, LGS, DD, ID, ASD, ADHD
13 Support Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014) No ASD
14 Support Whole-genome sequencing of quartet families with autism spectrum disorder Yuen RK , et al. (2015) Yes -
15 Support A de-novo STXBP1 gene mutation in a patient showing the Rett syndrome phenotype Romaniello R , et al. (2015) No ID, epilepsy/seizures
16 Support Mutations in epilepsy and intellectual disability genes in patients with features of Rett syndrome Olson HE , et al. (2015) No Epilepsy
17 Recent Recommendation Incorporating Functional Information in Tests of Excess De Novo Mutational Load Jiang Y , et al. (2015) No -
18 Support Gene Mutation Analysis in 253 Chinese Children with Unexplained Epilepsy and Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities Zhang Y , et al. (2015) No -
19 Recent Recommendation STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy Stamberger H , et al. (2016) No ASD or autistic features
20 Support Mislocalization of syntaxin-1 and impaired neurite growth observed in a human iPSC model for STXBP1-related epileptic encephalopathy Yamashita S , et al. (2016) No Epilepsy
21 Support Epilepsy is not a mandatory feature of STXBP1 associated ataxia-tremor-retardation syndrome Gburek-Augustat J , et al. (2016) No Ataxia
22 Support De novo genic mutations among a Chinese autism spectrum disorder cohort Wang T , et al. (2016) Yes -
23 Support Clinical exome sequencing: results from 2819 samples reflecting 1000 families Trujillano D , et al. (2016) Yes -
24 Support Diagnostic Targeted Resequencing in 349 Patients with Drug-Resistant Pediatric Epilepsies Identifies Causative Mutations in 30 Different Genes Parrini E , et al. (2016) No -
25 Support Hotspots of missense mutation identify neurodevelopmental disorder genes and functional domains Geisheker MR , et al. (2017) Yes -
26 Support Using medical exome sequencing to identify the causes of neurodevelopmental disorders: Experience of 2 clinical units and 216 patients Chrot E , et al. (2017) No Epileptic encephalopathy, ADHD
27 Support Rates, distribution and implications of postzygotic mosaic mutations in autism spectrum disorder Lim ET , et al. (2017) Yes -
28 Support Improved diagnostic yield compared with targeted gene sequencing panels suggests a role for whole-genome sequencing as a first-tier genetic test Lionel AC , et al. (2017) No -
29 Support Protein structure and phenotypic analysis of pathogenic and population missense variants in STXBP1 Suri M , et al. (2017) No Epilepsy/seizures, ASD
30 Support Germline and somatic mutations in STXBP1 with diverse neurodevelopmental phenotypes Uddin M , et al. (2017) No ASD, motor delay
31 Recent Recommendation Protein instability, haploinsufficiency, and cortical hyper-excitability underlie STXBP1 encephalopathy Kovacevic J , et al. (2018) No -
32 Support A novel STXBP1 mutation causes typical Rett syndrome in a Japanese girl Yuge K , et al. (2018) No Epilepsy/seizures, developmental regression, ASD,
33 Support Mechanism-based rescue of Munc18-1 dysfunction in varied encephalopathies by chemical chaperones Guiberson NGL , et al. (2018) No -
34 Support Genome sequencing identifies multiple deleterious variants in autism patients with more severe phenotypes Guo H , et al. (2018) Yes -
35 Support Elucidation of the phenotypic spectrum and genetic landscape in primary and secondary microcephaly Boonsawat P , et al. (2019) No DD, ID, epilepsy/seizures, stereotypies
36 Support The combination of whole-exome sequencing and copy number variation sequencing enables the diagnosis of rare neurological disorders Jiao Q , et al. (2019) No DD
37 Support Lessons Learned from Large-Scale, First-Tier Clinical Exome Sequencing in a Highly Consanguineous Population Monies D , et al. (2019) Yes -
38 Support The Clinical and Genetic Features of Co-occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Chinese Children Long S , et al. (2019) Yes -
39 Support Pathogenic Variants in STXBP1 and in Genes for GABAa Receptor Subunities Cause Atypical Rett/Rett-like Phenotypes Cogliati F , et al. (2019) No Atypical Rett syndrome/Rett syndrome-like phenotyp
40 Support Impact of on-site clinical genetics consultations on diagnostic rate in children and young adults with autism spectrum disorder Munnich A , et al. (2019) Yes -
41 Support Homozygous STXBP1 variant causes encephalopathy and gain-of-function in synaptic transmission Lammertse HCA , et al. (2019) No -
42 Support Large-Scale Exome Sequencing Study Implicates Both Developmental and Functional Changes in the Neurobiology of Autism Satterstrom FK et al. (2020) Yes -
43 Support Utility of clinical exome sequencing in a complex Emirati pediatric cohort Mahfouz NA et al. (2020) No -
44 Support The diagnostic yield of intellectual disability: combined whole genome low-coverage sequencing and medical exome sequencing Wang J et al. (2020) No -
45 Support A recurrent PJA1 variant in trigonocephaly and neurodevelopmental disorders Suzuki T et al. (2020) No -
46 Support Large-scale targeted sequencing identifies risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders Wang T et al. (2020) Yes ID
47 Support - Brunet T et al. (2021) No -
48 Support - Hiraide T et al. (2021) No -
49 Support - Liu L et al. (2021) No ASD, DD
Rare Variants   (165)
Status Allele Change Residue Change Variant Type Inheritance Pattern Parental Transmission Family Type PubMed ID Author, Year
- - copy_number_loss De novo NA - 29264391 Uddin M , et al. (2017)
- - copy_number_gain De novo NA - 27864847 Parrini E , et al. (2016)
- - copy_number_loss De novo NA - 28771251 Lionel AC , et al. (2017)
- - copy_number_loss Unknown - - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
- - copy_number_loss De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.326-2A>G - splice_site_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
- - copy_number_loss Unknown - Unknown 22722545 Campbell IM , et al. (2012)
c.1462-2A>G - splice_site_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.429+1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.88-1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 30945278 Jiao Q , et al. (2019)
del(ACTC) - frameshift_variant De novo NA - 21204804 Otsuka M , et al. (2011)
c.663+1G>T - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 29264391 Uddin M , et al. (2017)
c.157G>T p.Glu53Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.429+1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 20876469 Deprez L , et al. (2010)
c.663+5G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.416C>T p.Pro139Leu missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.512G>A p.Arg171His missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.569G>A p.Arg190Gln missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.688C>A p.Leu230Ile missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.703C>G p.Arg235Gly missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 29264391 Uddin M , et al. (2017)
c.703C>T p.Arg235Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.961A>T p.Lys321Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.1029+1G>T - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 20876469 Deprez L , et al. (2010)
c.169+1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 19557857 Hamdan FF , et al. (2009)
c.1061G>A p.Cys354Tyr missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.1216C>T p.Arg406Cys missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.1217G>A p.Arg406His missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.1548C>A p.Ser516Arg missense_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.1434G>A p.Trp478Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 20876469 Deprez L , et al. (2010)
c.169+2T>C - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 31344879 Cogliati F , et al. (2019)
c.536T>G p.Leu179Arg missense_variant De novo NA - 32429945 Wang J et al. (2020)
c.568C>T p.Arg190Trp missense_variant De novo NA - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
(?_-120)_37+?del - copy_number_loss De novo NA - 20876469 Deprez L , et al. (2010)
c.1162C>T p.Arg388Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 19557857 Hamdan FF , et al. (2009)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 27864847 Parrini E , et al. (2016)
c.1408G>T p.Glu470Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 27864847 Parrini E , et al. (2016)
c.1565G>A p.Trp522Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 27864847 Parrini E , et al. (2016)
c.1702+1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 31344879 Cogliati F , et al. (2019)
c.1110+1G>A - splice_site_variant Unknown - - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.533C>T p.Thr178Ile missense_variant De novo NA - 28944233 Suri M , et al. (2017)
c.568C>T p.Arg190Trp missense_variant De novo NA - 28944233 Suri M , et al. (2017)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 31344879 Cogliati F , et al. (2019)
c.107T>A p.Leu36Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1565G>A p.Trp522Ter stop_gained Unknown - - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.430-1G>C - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.579-2A>G - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.794+5G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.795-2A>T - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.902+1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1433G>A p.Trp478Ter stop_gained De novo NA Simplex 33951346 Liu L et al. (2021)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 28944233 Suri M , et al. (2017)
c.1702G>A p.Gly568Ser missense_variant De novo NA - 31139143 Long S , et al. (2019)
c.755T>C p.Met252Thr missense_variant De novo NA - 29264391 Uddin M , et al. (2017)
c.874C>T p.Arg292Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 29264391 Uddin M , et al. (2017)
c.251T>A p.Val84Asp missense_variant De novo NA - 18469812 Saitsu H , et al. (2008)
c.1631G>A p.Gly544Asp missense_variant Unknown - - 18469812 Saitsu H , et al. (2008)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 26918652 Yamashita S , et al. (2016)
c.364C>T p.Arg122Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.922A>T p.Lys308Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.326-327del - frameshift_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1359+1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1359+5G>C - splice_site_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1082C>T p.Thr361Ile missense_variant De novo NA - 28708303 Chrot E , et al. (2017)
c.1706C>T p.Ser569Phe missense_variant De novo NA - 28708303 Chrot E , et al. (2017)
- p.Lys526AsnfsTer23 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 29264391 Uddin M , et al. (2017)
c.247-1del - splice_site_variant De novo NA Simplex 23020937 Rauch A , et al. (2012)
c.794+5G>C - splice_site_variant De novo NA Simplex 32530565 Suzuki T et al. (2020)
c.539G>A p.Cys180Tyr missense_variant De novo NA - 18469812 Saitsu H , et al. (2008)
c.1075C>T p.Gln359Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1328T>G p.Met443Arg missense_variant De novo NA - 18469812 Saitsu H , et al. (2008)
c.1217G>A p.Arg406His missense_variant De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.1654T>C p.Cys552Arg missense_variant De novo NA - 21204804 Otsuka M , et al. (2011)
c.902+5G>A - splice_site_variant Familial Paternal - 21062273 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.755T>C p.Met252Thr missense_variant De novo NA - 28771251 Lionel AC , et al. (2017)
c.87+1G>T - splice_site_variant De novo NA Simplex 31406558 Munnich A , et al. (2019)
c.125C>T p.Ser42Phe missense_variant De novo NA - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.238T>C p.Ser80Pro missense_variant De novo NA - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.1630G>T p.Gly544Cys missense_variant Unknown - - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.17T>C p.Leu6Pro missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.217G>C p.Ala73Pro missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 33951346 Liu L et al. (2021)
c.1261G>T p.Glu421Ter stop_gained De novo NA Unknown 33619735 Brunet T et al. (2021)
c.1216C>T p.Arg406Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 27864847 Parrini E , et al. (2016)
c.568C>T p.Arg190Trp missense_variant De novo NA - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.416C>T p.Pro139Leu missense_variant De novo NA - 31344879 Cogliati F , et al. (2019)
c.767T>C p.Leu256Pro missense_variant De novo NA - 31344879 Cogliati F , et al. (2019)
c.931dup p.Ser311PhefsTer3 frameshift_variant Unknown - - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.585C>A p.Tyr195Ter stop_gained Unknown Not maternal - 27824329 Wang T , et al. (2016)
c.1060T>C p.Cys354Arg missense_variant De novo NA - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.1708A>G p.Thr570Ala missense_variant De novo NA - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.1216C>T p.Arg406Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 31344879 Cogliati F , et al. (2019)
c.1595G>A p.Arg532His missense_variant Unknown - - 28628100 Geisheker MR , et al. (2017)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant Unknown - - 28628100 Geisheker MR , et al. (2017)
c.703C>T p.Arg235Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 23934111 Epi4K Consortium , et al. (2013)
c.512G>A p.Arg171His missense_variant Familial Maternal - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.560C>T p.Pro187Leu missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 30504930 Guo H , et al. (2018)
c.1206del p.Tyr402Ter frameshift_variant De novo NA - 21364700 Hamdan FF , et al. (2011)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA Simplex 32382396 Mahfouz NA et al. (2020)
c.518C>A p.Ala173Glu missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.703C>G p.Arg235Gly missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.704G>A p.Arg235Gln missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.874C>T p.Arg292Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.875G>A p.Arg292His missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.875G>T p.Arg292Leu missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.517G>A p.Ala173Thr missense_variant Familial Paternal - 27824329 Wang T , et al. (2016)
c.60del p.Lys21ArgfsTer16 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 29544889 Yuge K , et al. (2018)
c.751G>A p.Ala251Thr missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 28714951 Lim ET , et al. (2017)
c.175G>A p.Glu59Lys missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 23020937 Rauch A , et al. (2012)
c.364C>T p.Arg122Ter stop_gained De novo NA Simplex 30842647 Boonsawat P , et al. (2019)
c.1022T>C p.Leu341Pro missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1216C>T p.Arg406Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1217G>A p.Arg406His missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1277T>C p.Leu426Pro missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1438C>T p.Pro480Ser missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1652G>A p.Arg551His missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1723C>T p.Pro575Ser missense_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant De novo NA - 28628100 Geisheker MR , et al. (2017)
c.1461G>A p.Glu487= synonymous_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.795-1G>A - splice_site_variant De novo NA Simplex 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1162C>T p.Arg388Ter stop_gained De novo NA - 27184330 Gburek-Augustat J , et al. (2016)
c.717del p.Ser240AlafsTer8 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 28944233 Suri M , et al. (2017)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 28714951 Lim ET , et al. (2017)
c.301G>C p.Ala101Pro missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 23020937 Rauch A , et al. (2012)
c.568C>T p.Arg190Trp missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 26544041 Zhang Y , et al. (2015)
c.1060T>C p.Cys354Arg missense_variant Unknown - Unknown 31130284 Monies D , et al. (2019)
c.703C>T p.Arg235Ter stop_gained De novo NA Simplex 27848944 Trujillano D , et al. (2016)
c.747dup p.Gln250SerfsTer6 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 22495311 Neale BM , et al. (2012)
c.1439C>T p.Pro480Leu missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 33644862 Hiraide T et al. (2021)
c.1548-6_1559delinsAT - frameshift_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.568C>T p.Arg190Trp missense_variant De novo NA - 23934111 Epi4K Consortium , et al. (2013)
c.334_335del p.Asp112CysfsTer4 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 33004838 Wang T et al. (2020)
c.1004C>T p.Pro335Leu missense_variant De novo NA - 23934111 Epi4K Consortium , et al. (2013)
c.1217G>A p.Arg406His missense_variant De novo NA - 23934111 Epi4K Consortium , et al. (2013)
c.1631G>A p.Gly544Asp missense_variant De novo NA - 23934111 Epi4K Consortium , et al. (2013)
c.695_696del p.Ile232ThrfsTer6 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 27824329 Wang T , et al. (2016)
c.893_894del p.Glu298GlyfsTer15 frameshift_variant Unknown - - 20876469 Deprez L , et al. (2010)
c.430-2_432delinsTGGGAGA - frameshift_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1205_1206insG p.Tyr402Ter frameshift_variant De novo NA Simplex 33951346 Liu L et al. (2021)
c.1154del p.Asp385AlafsTer30 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 23708187 Carvill GL , et al. (2013)
c.1598G>C p.Ser533Thr missense_variant Familial Paternal - 28628100 Geisheker MR , et al. (2017)
c.1217G>A p.Arg406His missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 25714420 Romaniello R , et al. (2015)
c.1060T>C p.Cys354Arg missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 27848944 Trujillano D , et al. (2016)
c.388_389del p.Leu130AspfsTer11 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 20887364 Saitsu H , et al. (2010)
c.1672del p.Gln558ArgfsTer9 frameshift_variant De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 31981491 Satterstrom FK et al. (2020)
c.1301del p.Pro434ArgfsTer112 frameshift_variant De novo NA Simplex 33951346 Liu L et al. (2021)
NM_003165.6:c.963+?_(*1967+?) del - copy_number_loss De novo NA - 20876469 Deprez L , et al. (2010)
c.874C>T p.Arg292Cys missense_variant Unknown Not maternal - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1598G>C p.Ser533Thr missense_variant Unknown Not maternal - 28628100 Geisheker MR , et al. (2017)
c.57_59del p.Ile19_Lys20delinsMet frameshift_variant De novo NA - 27864847 Parrini E , et al. (2016)
c.1651C>T p.Arg551Cys missense_variant Unknown - Multi-generational 31130284 Monies D , et al. (2019)
c.1583del p.Pro528GlnfsTer18 frameshift_variant De novo NA Multiplex 25621899 Yuen RK , et al. (2015)
c.568C>T p.Arg190Trp missense_variant De novo NA Multi-generational 31130284 Monies D , et al. (2019)
c.1659del p.Tyr554ThrfsTer3 frameshift_variant Unknown Not maternal - 25914188 Olson HE , et al. (2015)
NM_003165.3:c.38_?_(663+?_902+?)del - copy_number_loss De novo NA - 26865513 Stamberger H , et al. (2016)
c.1336C>T p.Leu446Phe missense_variant Familial Both parents Multiplex 31855252 Lammertse HCA , et al. (2019)
c.778G>T p.Glu260Ter stop_gained De novo NA Simplex 25533962 Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014)
c.1099C>T p.Arg367Ter stop_gained De novo NA Simplex 25533962 Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014)
c.704G>A p.Arg235Gln missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 25533962 Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014)
c.1631G>T p.Gly544Val missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 25533962 Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014)
c.148dup p.Ile50AsnfsTer14 frameshift_variant De novo NA Simplex 25533962 Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014)
c.438del p.Leu147TrpfsTer18 frameshift_variant De novo NA Simplex 25533962 Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study (2014)
Common Variants  

No common variants reported.

SFARI Gene score
1S

High Confidence, Syndromic

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

Score Delta: Score remained at 3S

1

High Confidence

See all Category 1 Genes

We considered a rigorous statistical comparison between cases and controls, yielding genome-wide statistical significance, with independent replication, to be the strongest possible evidence for a gene. These criteria were relaxed slightly for category 2.

The syndromic category includes mutations that are associated with a substantial degree of increased risk and consistently linked to additional characteristics not required for an ASD diagnosis. If there is independent evidence implicating a gene in idiopathic ASD, it will be listed as "#S" (e.g., 2S, 3S, etc.). If there is no such independent evidence, the gene will be listed simply as "S."

4/1/2021
3S
icon
3S

Score remained at 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

1/1/2021
3S
icon
3S

Score remained at 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

10/1/2020
3S
icon
3S

Score remained at 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

7/1/2020
3S
icon
3S

Score remained at 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

4/1/2020
3S
icon
3S

Score remained at 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

1/1/2020
3S
icon
3S

Score remained at 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

10/1/2019
3S
icon
1

Decreased from 3S to 1

New Scoring Scheme
Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

Reports Added
[New Scoring Scheme]
7/1/2019
3S
icon
3S

Decreased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

4/1/2019
3S
icon
3S

Decreased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

10/1/2018
3S
icon
3S

Decreased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

7/1/2018
4.4 + acc2 + S
icon
3S

Decreased from 4.4 + acc2 + S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

10/1/2017
3S
icon
3S

Increased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

7/1/2017
3S
icon
3S

Increased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

1/1/2017
3S
icon
3S

Increased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

10/1/2016
3S
icon
3S

Increased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

4/1/2016
3S
icon
3S

Increased from 3S to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

Reports Added
[Whole-genome sequencing of quartet families with autism spectrum disorder.2015] [Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders.2014] [De novo mutations in the gene encoding STXBP1 (MUNC18-1) cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.2008] [Clinical spectrum of early-onset epileptic encephalopathies associated with STXBP1 mutations.2010] [STXBP1 mutations in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst pattern.2010] [Paternal mosaicism of an STXBP1 mutation in OS.2010] [STXBP1 mutations cause not only Ohtahara syndrome but also West syndrome--result of Japanese cohort study.2011] [Targeted resequencing in epileptic encephalopathies identifies de novo mutations in CHD2 and SYNGAP1.2013] [De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies.2013] [De novo STXBP1 mutations in mental retardation and nonsyndromic epilepsy.2009] [Intellectual disability without epilepsy associated with STXBP1 disruption.2011] [Range of genetic mutations associated with severe non-syndromic sporadic intellectual disability: an exome sequencing study.2012] [Novel 9q34.11 gene deletions encompassing combinations of four Mendelian disease genes: STXBP1, SPTAN1, ENG, and TOR1A.2012] [Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders.2012] [Incorporating Functional Information in Tests of Excess De Novo Mutational Load.2015] [Gene Mutation Analysis in 253 Chinese Children with Unexplained Epilepsy and Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities.2015] [STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy.2016] [A de-novo STXBP1 gene mutation in a patient showing the Rett syndrome phenotype.2015] [Mutations in epilepsy and intellectual disability genes in patients with features of Rett syndrome.2015] [Mislocalization of syntaxin-1 and impaired neurite growth observed in a human iPSC model for STXBP1-related epileptic encephalopathy.2016] [Epilepsy is not a mandatory feature of STXBP1 associated ataxia-tremor-retardation syndrome.2016]
1/1/2016
icon
3S

Increased from to 3S

Description

Heterozygous variants in the STXBP1 gene are responsible for a form of early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE4; OMIM 612164) highlighted by epilepsy and often severe intellectual disability (Saitsu et al., 2008; Deprez et al., 2010). ASD has been observed in individuals with STXBP1 variants both in the presence and absence of epilepsy and/or intellectual disability (Campbell et al., 2012; Neale et al., 2012; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015; Yuen et al., 2015). A systemic review of 147 patients with STXBP1 encephalopathy, including 45 previously unreported patients, demonstrated that autism or autistic features were observed in approximately 20% of published cases, although the actual number of cases with autism/autistic features may be greater due to the focus of most studies on the intellectual disability/epilepsy phenotype (Stamberger et al., 2016). Variants in STXBP1 have also been identified in patients presenting with atypical Rett syndrome, with affected individuals frequently exhibiting autistic features and stereotyped movements (Romaniello et al., 2015; Olson et al., 2015).

Reports Added
[Whole-genome sequencing of quartet families with autism spectrum disorder.2015] [Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders.2014] [De novo mutations in the gene encoding STXBP1 (MUNC18-1) cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy.2008] [Clinical spectrum of early-onset epileptic encephalopathies associated with STXBP1 mutations.2010] [STXBP1 mutations in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-burst pattern.2010] [Paternal mosaicism of an STXBP1 mutation in OS.2010] [STXBP1 mutations cause not only Ohtahara syndrome but also West syndrome--result of Japanese cohort study.2011] [Targeted resequencing in epileptic encephalopathies identifies de novo mutations in CHD2 and SYNGAP1.2013] [De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies.2013] [De novo STXBP1 mutations in mental retardation and nonsyndromic epilepsy.2009] [Intellectual disability without epilepsy associated with STXBP1 disruption.2011] [Range of genetic mutations associated with severe non-syndromic sporadic intellectual disability: an exome sequencing study.2012] [Novel 9q34.11 gene deletions encompassing combinations of four Mendelian disease genes: STXBP1, SPTAN1, ENG, and TOR1A.2012] [Patterns and rates of exonic de novo mutations in autism spectrum disorders.2012] [Incorporating Functional Information in Tests of Excess De Novo Mutational Load.2015] [Gene Mutation Analysis in 253 Chinese Children with Unexplained Epilepsy and Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities.2015] [STXBP1 encephalopathy: A neurodevelopmental disorder including epilepsy.2016] [A de-novo STXBP1 gene mutation in a patient showing the Rett syndrome phenotype.2015] [Mutations in epilepsy and intellectual disability genes in patients with features of Rett syndrome.2015] [Mislocalization of syntaxin-1 and impaired neurite growth observed in a human iPSC model for STXBP1-related epileptic encephalopathy.2016]
Krishnan Probability Score

Score 0.5751140747065

Ranking 659/25841 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
Krishnan and colleagues generated probability scores genome-wide by using a machine learning approach on a human brain-specific gene network. The method was first presented in Nat Neurosci 19, 1454-1462 (2016), and scores for more than 25,000 RefSeq genes can be accessed in column G of supplementary table 3 (see: http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v19/n11/extref/nn.4353-S5.xlsx). A searchable browser, with the ability to view networks of associated ASD risk genes, can be found at asd.princeton.edu.
ExAC Score

Score 0.99988294322709

Ranking 702/18225 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) is a summary database of 60,706 exomes that has been widely used to estimate 'constraint' on mutation for individual genes. It was introduced by Lek et al. Nature 536, 285-291 (2016), and the ExAC browser can be found at exac.broadinstitute.org. The pLI score was developed as measure of intolerance to loss-of- function mutation. A pLI > 0.9 is generally viewed as highly constrained, and thus any loss-of- function mutations in autism in such a gene would be more likely to confer risk. For a full list of pLI scores see: ftp://ftp.broadinstitute.org/pub/ExAC_release/release0.3.1/functional_gene_constraint/fordist_cle aned_exac_nonTCGA_z_pli_rec_null_data.txt
Sanders TADA Score

Score 0.75457231068876

Ranking 1601/18665 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
The TADA score ('Transmission and De novo Association') was introduced by He et al. PLoS Genet 9(8):e1003671 (2013), and is a statistic that integrates evidence from both de novo and transmitted mutations. It forms the basis for the claim of 65 individual genes being strongly associated with autism risk at a false discovery rate of 0.1 (Sanders et al. Neuron 87, 1215-1233 (2015)). The calculated TADA score for 18,665 RefSeq genes can be found in column P of Supplementary Table 6 in the Sanders et al. paper (the column headed 'tadaFdrAscSscExomeSscAgpSmallDel'), which represents a combined analysis of exome data and small de novo deletions (see www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2038545319/2052606711/mmc7.xlsx).
Larsen Cumulative Evidence Score

Score 5

Ranking 293/461 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
Larsen and colleagues generated gene scores based on the sum of evidence for all available ASD-associated variants in a gene, with assessments based on mode of inheritance, effect size, and variant frequency in the general population. The approach was first presented in Mol Autism 7:44 (2016), and scores for 461 genes can be found in column I in supplementary table 4 from that paper.
Zhang D Score

Score 0.20850596125832

Ranking 4140/20870 scored genes


[Show Scoring Methodology]
The DAMAGES score (disease-associated mutation analysis using gene expression signatures), or D score, was developed to combine evidence from de novo loss-of- function mutation with evidence from cell-type- specific gene expression in the mouse brain (specifically translational profiles of 24 specific mouse CNS cell types isolated from 6 different brain regions). Genes with positive D scores are more likely to be associated with autism risk, with higher-confidence genes having higher D scores. This statistic was first presented by Zhang & Shen (Hum Mutat 38, 204- 215 (2017), and D scores for more than 20,000 RefSeq genes can be found in column M in supplementary table 2 from that paper.
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