Human Gene Module / Chromosome 5 / TRIM23

TRIM23tripartite motif containing 23

SFARI Gene Score
High Confidence Criteria 1.1
Autism Reports / Total Reports
6 / 6
Rare Variants / Common Variants
4 / 0
TRIM23, ARD1,  ARFD1,  RNF46
Associated Syndromes
Chromosome Band
Associated Disorders
Relevance to Autism

Two de novo missense variants, including one that was predicted to be damaging (defined as MPC 2), were identified in the TRIM23 gene in ASD probands from the Autism Sequencing Consortium and AGRE (De Rubeis et al., 2014; Yuen et al., 2017), while three protein-truncating variants in this gene were observed in case samples from the Danish iPSYCH study (Satterstrom et al., 2020). TADA analysis of de novo variants from the Simons Simplex Collection and the Autism Sequencing Consortium and protein-truncating variants from iPSYCH in Satterstrom et al., 2020 identified TRIM23 as a candidate gene with a false discovery rate (FDR) between 0.05 and 0.1 (0.05 < FDR 0.1).

Molecular Function

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. This protein is also a member of the ADP ribosylation factor family of guanine nucleotide-binding family of proteins. Its carboxy terminus contains an ADP-ribosylation factor domain and a guanine nucleotide binding site, while the amino terminus contains a GTPase activating protein domain which acts on the guanine nucleotide binding site. The protein localizes to lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus. It plays a role in the formation of intracellular transport vesicles, their movement from one compartment to another, and phopholipase D activation. It also acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase.

SFARI Genomic Platforms
Reports related to TRIM23 (6 Reports)
# Type Title Author, Year Autism Report Associated Disorders
1 Primary Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism De Rubeis S , et al. (2014) Yes -
2 Support The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder Iossifov I et al. (2014) Yes -
3 Support Whole genome sequencing resource identifies 18 new candidate genes for autism spectrum disorder C Yuen RK et al. (2017) Yes -
4 Recent recommendation Large-Scale Exome Sequencing Study Implicates Both Developmental and Functional Changes in the Neurobiology of Autism Satterstrom FK et al. (2020) Yes -
5 Support - Rhine CL et al. (2022) Yes -
6 Support - Woodbury-Smith M et al. (2022) Yes -
Rare Variants   (4)
Status Allele Change Residue Change Variant Type Inheritance Pattern Parental Transmission Family Type PubMed ID Author, Year
c.336T>A p.Ala112%3D synonymous_variant Unknown - - 35205252 Woodbury-Smith M et al. (2022)
c.1320G>A p.Val440= synonymous_variant De novo NA Simplex 25363768 Iossifov I et al. (2014)
c.1172T>C p.Phe391Ser missense_variant De novo NA Multiplex 28263302 C Yuen RK et al. (2017)
c.1700C>T p.Ala567Val missense_variant De novo NA Simplex 25363760 De Rubeis S , et al. (2014)
Common Variants  

No common variants reported.

SFARI Gene score

High Confidence

Score Delta: Score remained at 1


High Confidence

See all Category 1 Genes

We considered a rigorous statistical comparison between cases and controls, yielding genome-wide statistical significance, with independent replication, to be the strongest possible evidence for a gene. These criteria were relaxed slightly for category 2.


Increased from to 1

Krishnan Probability Score

Score 0.49767867987795

Ranking 2344/25841 scored genes

[Show Scoring Methodology]
Krishnan and colleagues generated probability scores genome-wide by using a machine learning approach on a human brain-specific gene network. The method was first presented in Nat Neurosci 19, 1454-1462 (2016), and scores for more than 25,000 RefSeq genes can be accessed in column G of supplementary table 3 (see: A searchable browser, with the ability to view networks of associated ASD risk genes, can be found at
ExAC Score

Score 0.066967184465075

Ranking 8254/18225 scored genes

[Show Scoring Methodology]
The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) is a summary database of 60,706 exomes that has been widely used to estimate 'constraint' on mutation for individual genes. It was introduced by Lek et al. Nature 536, 285-291 (2016), and the ExAC browser can be found at The pLI score was developed as measure of intolerance to loss-of- function mutation. A pLI > 0.9 is generally viewed as highly constrained, and thus any loss-of- function mutations in autism in such a gene would be more likely to confer risk. For a full list of pLI scores see: aned_exac_nonTCGA_z_pli_rec_null_data.txt
Sanders TADA Score

Score 0.56610520825981

Ranking 607/18665 scored genes

[Show Scoring Methodology]
The TADA score ('Transmission and De novo Association') was introduced by He et al. PLoS Genet 9(8):e1003671 (2013), and is a statistic that integrates evidence from both de novo and transmitted mutations. It forms the basis for the claim of 65 individual genes being strongly associated with autism risk at a false discovery rate of 0.1 (Sanders et al. Neuron 87, 1215-1233 (2015)). The calculated TADA score for 18,665 RefSeq genes can be found in column P of Supplementary Table 6 in the Sanders et al. paper (the column headed 'tadaFdrAscSscExomeSscAgpSmallDel'), which represents a combined analysis of exome data and small de novo deletions (see
Zhang D Score

Score 0.25822775808793

Ranking 3360/20870 scored genes

[Show Scoring Methodology]
The DAMAGES score (disease-associated mutation analysis using gene expression signatures), or D score, was developed to combine evidence from de novo loss-of- function mutation with evidence from cell-type- specific gene expression in the mouse brain (specifically translational profiles of 24 specific mouse CNS cell types isolated from 6 different brain regions). Genes with positive D scores are more likely to be associated with autism risk, with higher-confidence genes having higher D scores. This statistic was first presented by Zhang & Shen (Hum Mutat 38, 204- 215 (2017), and D scores for more than 20,000 RefSeq genes can be found in column M in supplementary table 2 from that paper.
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